How to shorten the gap between China's national bearing industry and imported bearings

2021-06-26 17:09

1. What are the specific differences between Chinese bearings and imported bearings?


    1. The accuracy of the bearing


   Although the dimensional deviation and rotation accuracy of Chinese-made bearings are very close to those of imported bearings. However, there is still a certain gap between the dispersion and the German imported bearings. Foreign countries have already begun to study and apply such fine rotation accuracy indicators as "non-repeatable beating", but China's research in this area is still blank.


    2. In terms of vibration, noise and abnormal sound


    Japan has introduced silent and ultra-quiet bearings, and the vibration extreme level of Chinese bearings is generally more than 10dB different from Japanese bearings.


    3. In terms of life and reliability


    Taking deep groove ball bearings as an example, the life of foreign brand-name products is generally more than 8 times the calculated life (up to 30 times or more), and the reliability is more than 98% (or the pursuit of life with the main engine), while the life of Chinese bearings is average It is only 3 to 5 times the calculated lifetime, and the reliability is about 96%.


    4. In terms of high-speed performance


    The DmN value of foreign brand-name products is 4 times 106 mm r/min, while Chinese bearings are only 2 times 106 mm r/min.


    2. The status quo of China's bearing development


    At present, my country's bearing industry ranks third in the total number of bearings in the world in terms of industrial economic scale, but there is still a considerable gap between the world's advanced level in terms of product accuracy and technical level. Mainly manifested in:


    1. The production concentration of my country's bearing industry is low


    The world's 8 largest multinational companies account for 75% to 80% of the approximately US$40 billion in sales of bearings in the world. Two German companies accounted for 90% of the country's total, Japan's five companies accounted for 90% of the country's total, and the United States accounted for 56% of the country's total. However, the sales of 7 bearing companies with annual sales of more than 1 billion yuan, such as my country's Wazhuan, accounted for only 28.3% of the entire industry.


    2. my country's bearing industry has low R&D and innovation capabilities


    Since most companies are still at a low level in terms of the construction and operation of innovation systems, R&D and innovation capital investment, and talent development, coupled with the development of industry-oriented scientific research institutes, the country has no research on common technologies in the industry. Investment, thereby weakening the function of industry-oriented research and development. Therefore, the industry-wide "two weaknesses and two few" are prominent, that is, basic theoretical research is weak, participation in the formulation of international standards is weak, there are few original technologies, and few patented products. At present, our design and manufacturing technology is basically analog, which has been consistent for decades. The low product development capability is manifested in the fact that although the matching rate for domestic mainframes has reached 80%, the supporting and maintenance bearings for important mainframes such as high-speed railway passenger cars, mid-to-high-end cars, computers, air conditioners, and high-level rolling mills are basically imported.


    3. The manufacturing technology level of my country's bearing industry is low


    The development of my country's bearing industry manufacturing technology and process equipment technology is slow, the CNC rate of turning processing is low, and the level of automation of grinding processing is low. There are only more than 200 automatic production lines in the country. Most enterprises, especially the old state-owned enterprises, still use traditional equipment as the main production force. Advanced heat treatment processes and equipment that are critical to bearing life and reliability, such as controlled atmosphere protection heating, double refinement, bainite quenching, etc., have low coverage, and many technical problems have failed to achieve breakthroughs. The research and development of new bearing steel grades, the improvement of steel quality, and the research and development of related technologies such as lubrication, cooling, cleaning, and abrasives, have not yet been able to meet the requirements of the level and quality of bearing products. As a result, the process capability index is low, the consistency is poor, the product processing size dispersion is large, and the internal quality of the product is unstable, which affects the accuracy, performance, life and reliability of the bearing.


    In recent years, the development of my country's bearings has continued to progress, and industrialization has gradually formed. At present, the world's bearing market is about 10% in my country, and its sales volume occupies the third place in the world. However, compared with the world's strong bearing industry, my country's bearings still have a certain gap. The main performance is that the proportion of high-tech, high-precision, and high-value-added products is low, and the stability of the products needs to be further improved and improved.


    3. What is the current market situation?


    Bearing giant monopoly has gradually become a fact


    At the beginning of the founding of New China, two bearing projects were specifically set up in the "156" industrialization foundation projects, namely, the current Luozhou Group and the Harbin Group. On July 13, 2010, General Secretary Hu Jintao proposed to "build a world-class bearing R&D and production base" when inspecting Luozhou. However, this company was even in danger of being acquired by foreign counterparts a few years ago. At present, the research and development, manufacturing and sales of high-end bearings are basically monopolized by the world's four major bearing giants, namely Timken of the United States, NSK of Japan, SKF of Sweden, and Schaeffler of Germany (FAG). In 2006, German Schaeffler (FAG) has been attempting to acquire Luozhou Group. Although Luozhou Group was in a dilemma of serious losses at the time, it was regarded by Schaeffler as a potential opponent in the future and wanted to "absorb."


    Another smaller bearing company, Gansu Hailin Zhongke Technology Co., Ltd., as a leading company in the field of tapered roller bearings in China, is a typical "lightweight" player compared to Timken. More than ten years of lawsuits. More than ten years ago, Gansu Hailin was brought to a US court by Timken on charges of so-called low-price dumping. In 2002, Hailin won the US Department of Commerce's "permanent anti-dumping tax rate" ruling in the United States. In the Chinese market, according to He Kehong, deputy general manager of Hailin, the number of American Timken bearing products exported to China is increasing each year, while the average price is decreasing; at present, the company’s products are selling at low prices in China. Because its selling price in the United States is also lower than its selling price in other regions, it is considered dumping. The products of the American Timken Company's Chinese factory are also sold at low prices, which creates unfair competition with their peers. "China Industry News" on November 18, 2013, "Timken Involved in Unfair Competition, China Shaft Association Calls for Common Development" mentioned: Niu Hui, Deputy Secretary-General of China Bearing Industry Association, expressed his support for Hailin's all legal and The association has the responsibility and obligation to provide all possible assistance to Hailin Company for legitimate rights protection activities. This is the first time that the China Axle Association has made an official voice on China Hailin's application for investigation of the suspected dumping of Timken in China. How to curb the momentum of China's bearing industry moving towards the high-end bearing field may have become the top priority of the world's bearing giants in the containment strategy of China's bearing industry.


    4. How do we respond? How to catch up with German bearings?


    It is urgent to strengthen bearing research and education


    The Japanese bearing giant NSK has 1,800 R&D personnel in its headquarters, which is beyond the imagination of Chinese bearing counterparts. In the eyes of many laymen, bearings are components with simple structures. Is it necessary to equip so many R&D personnel? In fact, the bearings that everyone sees in daily life are low-end bearings with low technical content, and the technical complexity of high-end bearings is incomparable to low-end bearings.


    Lu Bingheng, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, believes that the research and development of high-end bearings involves a series of technical problems such as materials, grease and lubrication, manufacturing, design, bearing manufacturing equipment, testing and testing, as well as contact mechanics, lubrication theory, tribology, fatigue and damage, heat treatment and Basic research and interdisciplinary subjects such as material organization.


    Academician Lu’s remarks show the extreme complexity of high-end bearing technology, and its difficulty is very high. This also shows that it is necessary to set up a special engineering major for bearings. And an undergraduate student majoring in comprehensive and wide-caliber mechanical engineering, although he has also studied tens of hours of bearing class hours, but in such a short class hours, he only learned the deep knowledge of bearing, such as undergraduates who devote themselves to bearings The industry is almost equivalent to learning from scratch, it is too time-consuming, and the competent working hours are too long, and the employer has to carry out a lot of time-consuming and labor-intensive training on its professional knowledge of bearings.


    As mentioned earlier, the shortcomings of high-end bearings do not only exist in the field of aeroengines. Such shortcomings still exist in the fields of high-precision machine tool equipment, high-speed railways, instrumentation, etc., and only we increase the development of high-end bearings. Only by investing in human, financial and material resources can China realize the fundamental transformation from a big bearing country to a powerful bearing country.